The CCD sensor (ChagreCouledDevice) is a special semiconductor material. It consists of a large number of individual photosensitive elements, which are usually arranged in a matrix. Light is transmitted through the lens onto the CCD and converted into electrical charge. The amount of charge on each component depends on the intensity of the light it is subjected to. The CCD transmits the information of each component to the analog-to-digital converter. The analog electrical signal is processed into a digital signal after being processed by the analog-to-digital converter. The digital signal is compressed in a certain format and stored in the buffer, and the image is born. The image data is then output in the form of digital signals and video signals according to different needs.
CMOS is Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, which plays an absolutely important role in the semiconductor technology of microprocessors, flash memories and ASICs. Both CMOS and CCD can be used to sense light-changing semiconductors. CMOS is mainly made up of semiconductors made of two elements, silicon and germanium, which implement basic functions through negatively charged and positively charged transistors on CMOS. The current generated by these two complementary effects can be recorded and interpreted as images by the processing chip.
The main advantage of CMOS for CCD is that it is very power efficient. Unlike CCDs made up of diodes, CMOS circuits have almost no static power consumption, and only consume power when the circuit is turned on. This makes the power consumption of CMOS only about 1/3 of that of ordinary CCD.There is a big difference between the CMOS and CCD image data scanning methods. For example, if the resolution is 3 million pixels, the CCD sensor can continuously scan 3 million charges. The scanning method is very simple, just like transferring the bucket from one person to another, and only after the last data scan is completed. The signal can then be amplified. Each pixel of a CMOS sensor has an amplifier that converts the charge into an electrical signal. Therefore, the CMOS sensor can perform signal amplification on a per-pixel basis. This method can save any invalid transmission operation, so fast data scanning can be performed with a small amount of energy consumption, and noise is also reduced. [Pre：MINING Iran 2019]